APA Style requires that you cite an author within the body of your paper in addition to having a full citation on the references page. You can directly quote an author or paraphrase an author.
Paraphrasing versus Quoting
It is highly preferred that you use your own words to describe someone else's work, findings, etc. Although paraphrasing is preferred, you can directly quote from an author as long as you include the author's name and the date of publication.
Paraphrasing: Flight is an ability many birds have (Smith, 2011).
Author’s Name is Part of a Sentence: According to Smith (2011), many birds have the ability to fly.
Quoting: "Many birds can fly" (Smith, 2011, p. 265).
Institutional Author: "For an institutional author, spell out its entire name" (Center for Institutional Authors, 2016, para. 2).
Use the word 'and' between the authors' last names when citing within the text, and use the ampersand (i.e., &) when citing within the parentheses.
Paraphrasing: The research indicated that weather temperature is positively correlated with crime incidence (Davis & Brown, 1995).
Authors’ Names are Part of a Sentence: David and Brown (1995) suggest that weather temperature is positively correlated with crime incidence.
Quoting: Davis and Brown (1995) stated, "higher temperatures are correlated with an increase in criminal activity" (p. 180).
Three or More Authors:
For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity.
Lee et al. (2015) suggest that librarians often have difficulty creating examples of fake quotes to use in Libguides.
Librarians often have difficulty creating examples of fake quotes to using in Libguides (Lee et al., 2015).
How do I cite it when...?
1. A work Has No Author
If there is no author (be sure it's not an institutional author, like Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), cite the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title. For example: ("All 33 Chile Miners," 2010). Note: Use the full title if it is short.
2. Authors Have The Same Last Name
If two or more of your sources are written by authors with the same surname, include the first author's initials with the surname in every in-text reference.
Example: Among studies, we review M. A. Light and Light (2008) and I. Light (2006) ...
3. No Page Numbers Are Available for a Quotation
If a resource contains no page numbers, as can be the case with electronic sources, then you cannot include a page number in the parentheses. However, provide readers with another way of locating the quoted passage. Any of the following approaches is acceptable; use the approach that will best help readers find the quotation:
a. Provide a heading or section name.
Example: For people with osteoarthritis, "painful joints should be moved through a full range of motion every day to maintain flexibility and to slow deterioration of cartilage" (Gecht-Silver & Duncombe, 2015, Osteoarthritis section.)
b. Provide an abbreviated heading or section name in quotation marks to indicate the abbreviation if the full heading or section name is too long or unwieldy to cite in full.
Example: To prevent kidney failure, patients should "get active," "quit smoking," and "take medications as directed" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017, "What Can You Do" section).
c. Provide a paragraph number (count the paragraphs manually if they are not numbered).
Example: People planning for retirement need more than just money-they also "need to stockpile their emotional reserves" to ensure adequate support from family and friends (Chamberlin, 2014, para.1).
d. Provide a heading or section number in combination with a paragraph number.
Example: Music and language are intertwined in the brain such that "people who are better at rhythmic memory skills tend to excel at language skills as well" (DeAngelis, 2018, Musical Forays section, para. 4).
Because they are an avenue to communicating a specific point, "quotations are effective in research papers when used selectively" (Gibaldi, 2003, p.109).
40 Words or More
Flores et al. (2018) described how they addressed potential researcher bias when working with an intersectional community of people of color:
Everyone on the research team belonged to a stigmatized group but also held privileged identities. Throughout the research process, we attended to the ways in which our privileged and oppressed identities may have influenced the research process, findings, and presentation of results. (p. 311)
Quoting - Frequently Asked Questions
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