Today, most surgical procedures are safe, even routine. It wasn’t always that way. By looking at the obstacles of pain, infection, and shock, this program chronicles the milestones and pioneers of modern surgery, tracing the development of anesthesia, antiseptics, antibiotics, and transfusions. To illustrate just how far the field has come, the intricacies of heart bypass surgery are presented in close detail. Numerous case studies are also used to show the progress of reconstructive and cosmetic surgery, as well as the emergence of laparoscopy and other noninvasive techniques.